Posts Tagged ‘Australia’

This is a summary of my research project “Media Consumption Experiences of Southeast Asian Chinese Migrants in Australia” under the supervision of Dr. Lewis Mayo and Dr. Fran Martin of the Faculty of Arts at the University of Melbourne. It was submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Postgraduate Diploma of Arts (Asian Studies) at the University of Melbourne.

Media Consumption and Self-Identity

My thesis explores the relationship between international mobility, media and identity. I interviewed eighteen Southeast Asian Chinese migrants from Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei in Australia to understand how and to what extent their narrative media consumption influences the ongoing construction of their identities, including their cultural identities and their sense of belonging to particular places.

My respondents consist of twelve migrants from Malaysia, five from Singapore and one from Brunei Darussalam. These migrants are working adults (aged 28-63) with the status of permanent residents or citizens of Australia. These migrants are all first generation migrants who have lived in Australia for one year to seventeen years, with one exception who has lived here for thirty-three years. They were asked about their media consumption history before arriving in Australia and after their arrival in Australia. These interviews were conducted between May and July 2013.

In my interviews with ethnically Chinese migrants from Southeast Asia, I confirmed the interactive two-way relationship between narrative media consumption and self-identity outlined in earlier research (Christiansen 2004; Georgiou 2004; Metykova 2010). The self-identities of migrants affect their media consumption choices according to their needs, interests and lifestyles. Migrants’ media consumption has the power to transform and reconstruct identity and sense of belonging. Several of the interviewed migrants choose to consume Chinese language media to maintain or re-construct their cultural identity, as they define it. I found that knowledge and understanding of Australian culture through the consumption of Australian media had contributed to a sense of belonging in Melbourne for most of my respondents.

Technology Changes Media Consumption Patterns

My research contributes to our understanding of the media consumption experiences of ethnically Chinese migrants in today’s technology intensive context, a context which differs significantly from that in the times when earlier studies were conducted (Sinclair et al. 2000; Sun et al. 2011, 516). I found that the interactive relationship between self-identities and media consumption is influenced by two factors. The first factor is the advancement of Internet technology and miniaturized media devices making it possible for my respondents to personalize their narrative media consumption choices from around the world, create their identities and carry their social networks while on the move locally and internationally. Mobility of media in everyday life has influenced the formation of identities and the media consumption patterns of the respondents. They customized their media consumption with globally sourced content according to their interests and consumed their media whenever they wanted it. This has helped these migrants’ to maintain their media consumption interests after migrating to Australia. The massive amount of information available online has made my respondents actively involved in the formation of their identities through their interactive searching via the Internet. Furthermore, these miniaturized media devices encouraged “dual screening”, with some of my respondents consuming overseas media while watching local Australian media on TV simultaneously. This illustrates my respondents’ active choice making in determining which media content to consume according to their interests and preferred time, switching back and forth from mobile devices to broadcast TV. Furthermore, Facebook, accessible through miniaturized media devices, is transforming the creation of identities by my respondents, as it provides a platform for them to update their status about their activities, emotions and experiences while on the move locally and internationally. Their Facebook social networks become portable as these are carried on the devices they take with them everywhere they go. The transnational narrative media and hyperlinks shared among migrants’ families and friends are clearly influencing and directing my respondents’ media consumption patterns.

Mobility as a Lifestyle Choice

The second factor that I found influencing the relationship between self-identities and media consumption in these migrants’ lives relates to physical international mobility. Traveling and living in different countries leads to the development of the concept of mobility over a lifetime—or “lifestyle mobility”—in their imagination (Cohen et al. 2013). Several of my interviewees exhibited ongoing transnational mobility as a lifestyle choice, leading different lifestyles and consuming different media according to their presence in different countries. The concept of mobility over a lifetime among some of my respondents was developed naturally from the sense of belonging to various communities they had been members of. This sense of belonging was maintained, in part, through media consumption (as well as continual travel to these places). Consumption of narrative media that relate to travelling and experiencing adventures influenced the self-identities of several respondents, augmenting their desire for “lifestyle mobility.” Frequent travelling imprinted on the psyche of some respondents a nomadic identity of mobility and versatility, with their varied media consumption patterns supporting these aspirations.

There is the possibility that new media technologies are creating a different sense of community and identity from the old print and televisual media that were used to imagine traditional nation states and diasporic communities. Migrants who are computer-savvy are able to utilize the Internet through miniaturized media devices to access their preferred media content whenever and wherever they want. They are able to travel internationally and live in different countries without having to suffer significant loss of their preferred narrative media. Online social networks like Facebook have made it easy for migrants to continue being connected to their network of families and friends. This helps decrease the impact of migrants’ loss of physical contact with family and friends in their home countries. The advancement in Internet technology and miniaturized media devices has enabled migrants to feel more mobile internationally, with the ability to continue accessing their social networks and favorite media content. This has made it easier for migrants to develop the concept of “lifestyle mobility” in their imagination. However, migrants who are not able to utilize these new media technologies perhaps feel less readily mobile internationally.

Mobility of Media and International Travel

The research for this thesis leads me to postulate that a relationship is forming between the mobility of media in everyday life and the international mobility of people, particularly migrants. The advancement in Internet technology and miniaturized media devices is fueling people’s desires and aspirations for international travel. (The Internet lowers cultural barriers by providing a tremendous amount of information including travel recommendations and good deals with regards to transportation, accommodation and tours.) It also provides a platform for people to share their lifestyles and aspirations. Blogs and social media networks enable people to share information about their activities, lifestyles and aspirations. The information sharing by families and friends on Facebook of photos and videos of their activities has the power to influence others in their social network to desire to travel and experience these activities too. The international mobility of people has increased greatly as the costs of international travel have decreased, especially with the introduction of budget airlines. Travel information on the Internet has also helped lower travel costs for people as it enables them to book flights, accommodation and tours without requiring travel agent intermediaries. The decrease in the cost of international travel has reduced geographical barriers, making it easier for people to fulfill their aspirations for travel and adventure.

Impact and Interpretation

My research offers insights into how narrative media consumption through new media technologies has influenced the on-going construction of identities and sense of belonging on the part of the migrants studied. The increasing reflexivity I find among my respondents extends to reflections about their ethnic and national identities at a level that extends beyond their actions and decisions involving what kind of media to consume. These migrants are actively creating their own identities through media consumption, thereby becoming increasingly involved in producing their own DIY biographies (Beck, 2009). Furthermore, the concept of “lifestyle mobility” is important to most of my respondents (Cohen et al. 2013). In the majority of my respondents’ minds, international travel and living in different countries have led to the development of the concept of mobility over a lifetime.

The construction of self-identity is an ongoing complex process. Although there may be many factors influencing the formation of self-identity, the power of media consumption in it cannot be underestimated. I hope my findings will provide further understanding of the process of migrants’ self-identity formation, including their cultural identity and sense of belonging to a place.


Beck, Ulrich. 2009. “Losing the Traditional: Individualization and Precarious Freedoms.” In Identity in Question, edited by Anthony Elliott, and Paul du Gay, 14-33. London: Thousand Oaks.

Christiansen, Connie C. 2004. “News Media Consumption among Immigrants in Europe: The Relevance of Diaspora.” Ethnicities 4(2): 185-207.

Cohen, Scott, Tara Duncan, and Maria Thulemark. 2013. “Lifestyle Mobilities: The Crossroads of Travel, Leisure and Migration.” Mobilities 2013. Accessed September 4, 2013. Doi:10.1080/17450101.2013.826481.

Georgiou, Myria. 2004. “Consuming Ethnic Media, Constructing Ethnic Identities, Shaping Communities: A Case Study of Greek Cypriots in London.” In Race/ Gender/Media: Considering Diversity Across Audience, Content, and Producers, edited by Rebecca A. Lind, 52-60. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Metykova, Monika. 2010. “Only a Mouse Click Away From Home: Transnational Practices of Eastern European Migrants in the United Kingdom.” Social Identities 16(3): 325-338.

Sinclair, John, Audrey Yue, Gay Hawkins, Kee PooKong, and Josephine Fox. 2000. “Chinese Cosmopolitanism and Media Use.” In Floating Lives: The Media and Asian Diasporas, edited by Stuart Cunningham and John Sinclair, 35-90. St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press.

Sun, Wanning, Audrey Yue, John Sinclair, and Jia Gao. 2011. “Diasporic Chinese Media in Australia: A post-2008 overview.” Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies 25(4): 515-527.

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Last month I attended a public lecture by Professor Koichi Iwabuchi on multicultural co-living in Japan. He talked about many foreigners already living in Japan despite there being no government policy towards immigrants. Japan is tightening its borders in reaction to terrorism following the footsteps of other countries around the world like America and UK. He thinks Japan should be more open to immigrants and have a coherent policy to enable this.

This will be hard to achieve in Japan. Immigration is a sensitive topic around the world. Its benefits are great. It can drive domestic growth, provide needed skills, support an ageing population and make a place interesting and exciting to live in. However, the negative points will start to appear to residents when a country is in recession and unemployment rises like in Spain, or when the environmental costs of immigration are high in a hot and dry country like Australia. This will create friction when citizens begin to resent the presence of immigrants, like in Singapore.






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Pete Bethune, an anti-whaling activist from Sea Shepherd Conservation Society is currently facing charges of trespassing in connection with his boarding of a Japanese vessel in the Antarctic Ocean. This is one of a series of incidents between Sea Shepherd and the Japanese Research Whaling fleet. The anti whaling group Sea Shepherd believes that the Antarctic Ocean is a protected sanctuary for whales. Therefore, they have been trying to stop the Japanese from whaling there. However the Japanese government believes that they are within their rights in their research whaling activities.

Sea Shepherd’s has a good goal of protecting whales, an endangered species but I disagree with their aggressive methods.

The whaling issue is difficult to resolve due to the fundamental difference in opinions towards whales. Many people in Australia and New Zealand believe that whales are intelligent conscious mammals that should be protected. However the Japanese government considers whales as a resource of the sea that should be in the same category as fish. While recognizing a decrease in the number of whales due to overfishing in the past, the Japanese government asserts that there has been a 10% yearly increase in the number of whales since the ban on commercial whaling in 1986. Among the various reasons for their whaling activities, I think the main reason is national pride. Japan views whaling as an important tradition, and resents being told by other countries what it should and shouldn’t do. After all, Japan does not preach to other countries on what they should not eat.

This dispute can only be resolved with a compromise on both sides. The international community should allow Japan to conduct whaling activities along it’s own coasts, in exchange for which Japan would stop its research whaling activities. In addition, every year the international community should limit the number of whales caught by Japan and other whaling countries like Iceland and Norway. There is no clear right answer to this whaling dispute, but I think this is a good suggestion. Both sides are entitled to their opinions and reasons.






捕鯨の論争について、解決の難しさの理由は、クジラに対する意見が基本的に違うと思う。豪州とニュージーランドの国民の大多数は、クジラが知能の発達した哺乳類なので、守るべきだと思っている。日本政府の考えは、違ってクジラがただ海の資源の一つなので、魚のように扱うべきだと思っている。日本の主張では、かつては乱獲でクジラの急減したが、1986年で商業捕鯨が一時停止されたから、現在年間10%以上が増えている。日本は、商業捕鯨をしたい理由がいくつかあるのだが、国民の愛国心が高まっていることが主要な理由だと思う。日本は、他の国から「何をして良いか、何をしてはいけないか」を言われていることに、憤慨している 。日本は、他の国に何を食べるべきだと説教していない 。

この論争は、両方が妥協しないと、解決できない。もし国際社会が日本に沿岸捕鯨を認めれば、代わりに、調査捕鯨を止めることができる。この提案に加えて、国際社会は、毎年日本と他の捕鯨国である、アイスランドとノルウェーがクジラを捕られる数を制限できる 。この提案は、良いと思う。捕鯨の論争については、はっきりと正しい答えがない。オーストラリアと日本の両国は、自国の理由と意見がある。

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